Module 4 – 4.1 Drawing Basics and Taking Measurements Copy
DRAWING BASICS AND MEASUREMENTS
The ability to draw is essential in the design process. When we are talking about ‘drawing’ in the interior design profession, it can refer to hand drafting or drawing with computer software. Before the first line is drawn, the interior designer must understand the language of measurements.
The worldwide system of measurements collectively known as the International System of units or SI is the most widely used standard of three – meaning the length, weight or volume of an object and its relation to other objects.
The International System of Units is the modern form of the metric system. It is the only system of measurement with an official status in nearly every country in the world.
Designers from the UK and the USA are familiar with both metric and the customary system. In the customary system distances are measured in inches, feet, yards and miles.
USEFUL CONVERSION FORMULAS:
Construction calculators provide easy access to a full range of conversions needed in the construction related industries. It’s a very handy tool, so you should definitely buy one. Many models also calculate other data that can be useful for interior designers.
Image of the calculator:
When you are measuring a room, start with drawing a quick ‘plan view’ of the space. Add every single detail that you can see in the room to your drawing (window, door, pillaster, electric points, boiler, fireplace etc). Then start to measure each area.
You can use the following order to measure the rooms: Order of horizontal measurements for scale floor plan
Take the measurements in the following order:
Front wall to back wall; side wall to side wall
Wall to window
Width of window
Window to wall
Width of window architrave
Wall to door
Width of door opening (excluding architraves)
Door to wall
Wall to fireplace
Depth of fireplace recess
Overall width of fireplace wall
Fireplace to wall
Order of vertical measurements for elevation drawings:
Overall height from floor to ceiling
Depth of skirting board
Skirting board to bottom of (any) dado
Depth of dado
Top of dado to bottom of (any) picture rail
Depth of picture rail
Top of picture rail to bottom of cornice
Depth of cornice to ceiling
Overall height of door; omitting architrave
Top of door architrave to bottom of picture rail, cornice or ceiling
Although the computer has taken over the primary method of drawing, manual drafting tools are still an important part of the design process. Manual drafting is good for developing quick ideas and details before the final drawing is completed by the computer.
What are the drawing tools?
Lead holders – device that hold leads of 2 mm diameters and the spring push action increases the length of lead for sharpening Mechanical Pencil – Leads in various diameters up to 0.0 mm that do not require sharpening Standard pencils – good for freehand drawing and sketches Graphite – Available in various hardnesses, good for drawing and sketching on tracing paper or vellum Coloured leads Plastic leads – leads designed for use on plastic type of drawing material such as vellum or Mylar Technical pens– pens in specific widths designed for drafting T -squares rulers – technical drawing tools that can draw precise vertical, horizontal or diagonal lines. They are called T squares because they have a long rules and head, marked with imperial and metric graduations that are positioned like the letter T. Parallel Ruler – drafting instrument ideal to draw parallel lines Triangles and adjustable triangles Scale ruler – A scale ruler converts the measurement from metres to a smaller scale and is always proportional to the original measurement. Very useful! Flex curves –A Flexi-curve is used to draw curves. It can be formed into almost any curve as it is flexible. Flex-curves are useful as they are simply shaped to form the desired curve French curves – a template (usually made from wood, plastic or metal) that offers many curved shapes that help in the drawing. Tracing paper – Thin, transparent paper comes in white and yellow. It’s good for sketching and drafting details. Vellum – thicker then trace, available in various weights, transparent and smooth finish. It’s good for construction documents, hard line detail drawings. Drafting film (Mylar) – construction documents, available in various weights. Erases well and is resistant to tearing. Bond – opaque paper, available in a variety of thickness and finishes. It’s perfect for final drawings. Illustration board – finish paper laminated on a cardboard backing, available in single or double ply thickness. Ideal for the final presentation.
Scale ruler I will talk about the scale ruler in a little bit more detail, as I think you will use it more often than the other rulers. The scales 1:20 and 1:50 shown on different sides of the 3 sided scale ruler are the main ones we use in Interior Design and are usually appropriate to draw average sized rooms on A4 paper. Whichever scale you use, the scale ruler works out the measurement conversion for you. You don’t need to start making calculations. If the room is 3 metres wide, look at the 1:2 scale and you will see the markings at the digit 3 that represents 3 metres.
Choose a relevant scale according to the size of room and size of drawing you wish to end up with.
a) If you are drawing a whole house floor plan then 1:50 scale is usually suitable for use in an A4 presented report. 1 cm space on the ruler = 50cm of the room. The measurements on the scale ruler refer to the Metres which they represent. You don’t have to make a conversion. The 1:50 scale allows you to fit a larger room space or number of rooms on your paper, however the rooms will appear smaller and it’s more difficult to assess what is adequate space around the furniture and fittings. You may need to measure on your scale floor plan and, for instance, if the gap from the sofa to the coffee table measures 60cm then measure this in a physical space around you and work out if it would be ergonomically and aesthetically enough.
b) If you are drawing one room floor plan then 1:20 is usually a suitable scale on A4 paper. 1 cm of the ruler = 20cm of the room. The room on your paper will be larger than the 1:50 scale because each 1 centimetre of ruler is now equivalent to only 20 cm of space, not 50cm of room space. The measurements on the scale ruler refer to the Metres which they represent. You don’t have to make a conversion. The size of the floor plan will be larger and it will be easier to assess adequate space around furniture and fittings.
Image of the scale ruler:
For the hand drawings it is very handy to learn and use the following symbols:
Check out the following images with a larger symbols for the important elements that you will probably use on your drawings quite often:
You can also buy this handy ruler for the hand drawing purpose. It’s called: Architect Interior Design Geometric Drafting Template Ruler.
Line weights and types: Lines are essential to the communicative language of an interior designer. Line types have many functions in an interior drawing. The designer determines the relative meaning for different weights. However, heavier lines are typically reserved for plans and section cuts, while lighter lines form the outlines of surfaces and furniture which is in the room.
Dashed lines represent many different elements. Example: cabinets above the kitchen counter, structural grids, electrical wiring, lighting etc.
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