Module 5 – Types of Drawing including Perspective Copy
TYPES OF DRAWING
Floor plans: A floor plan layout is an interior design drawing that shows the bird’s eye view of the property without its roof. Floor plans allow potential buyers and investors to understand the essence of a property, its spaces, and their interaction with each other. Having a floor layout drawing of building also aids in the decision-making process of selecting and purchasing materials. It helps you visualise what the end results will be, so you can make changes in the interior design drawings or choose materials accordingly, rather than spending money on rework post construction.
Furniture location plans: If you have an accurate floor plan layout drawing in place, you can also pick out furniture, bathroom fittings, and wardrobe millwork, and ensure that they blend in seamlessly with the overall appearance of your space.
Reflected ceiling plans: Reflected ceiling plans depict the upper surface of a room as viewed through a mirror. All light fixtures, ceiling data such as heights and material are noted on the RCP.
Floor finish and wall finish plans- Describe the various finishes used in the project. With a simple tagging system you can provide the data for start and stop points of each colour, wallpaper, wood panelling and other.
Interior Elevation: An elevation sketch is an orthographic projection—a two-dimensional representation of a three- dimensional space. For interior design, it is a two-dimensional drawing of a wall (or series of walls) with varying degrees of detail. An interior elevation plan, or section drawing, can help give the designer a front or side view of a room, developing in complexity as details are added throughout the project, like where appliances or built-ins should be positioned. By creating an elevation drawing, you can figure out the placement of things like furniture, fixtures, ceiling height, or other decor you plan on including in your final design. Elevation sketches are usually scale drawings, and present a layout of a room on a vertical plane—from floor through the horizontal line to the ceiling—giving a more accurate idea of where and how things will fit together.
An elevation is great for seeing more specific details from eye level, which makes it especially useful for kitchen design and other types of renovation.
The correct drawing order:
Reflected ceiling plan
Furniture Installation plan
Paper sizes: The ISO (International Standards Organisation) ‘A series’ of paper sizes has become the global standard for document sizes, it is based on the following principles:
A0 has an area of one square metre.
The height divided by the width of all formats is the square root of two (1.4142).
A1 is A0 cut into two equal pieces. In other words, the height of A1 is the width of A0 and the width of A1 is half the height of A0. All smaller A series formats are defined in the same way.
If you cut format An parallelto its shorter side into two equal pieces of paper, these will have format A(n+1).
The standardised height and width of the paper formats is a rounded number of millimetres.
Three Dimensional Drawing types: 3D drawings types are used to demonstrate aspects of the design that are hard to be understood through a two dimensional representation. 3D drawings can explain and demonstrate the colours, the furniture details, light, finishes etc. The two most commonly used 3 dimensional drawing types are: Paraline drawings and Perspective drawings.
Paraline drawing is a method of projecting the form and shape of objects onto a two- dimensional surface paper giving an illusion of three-dimensional form. Paraline drawing uses the object’s true scale to construct the 3D image, allowing one to measure accurate dimensions.
Paraline drawings can be Oblique projections or isometric, diametric and trimetric projections.
Oblique projection- can be represented either as a plan or elevation based:
Isometric, dimetric and trimetric projections – represents the second classification of paraline drawings. In these, the angles from which the object is viewed is lower than in the obliques. Isometric is the most popular way of drawing of all:
Check out the following links to watch videos about the basics and learn how to draw opaque and isometric squares:
Perspective drawings: Perspective drawing is a technique used to depict spatial depth, or perspective. In other words, it allows you to accurately draw a three dimensional object onto a two dimensional plane.
There are typically three types of perspective drawing: one-point perspective, two-point perspective, and three-point perspective.
1. One-point perspective: One-point perspective is often used for compositions that look at objects from the front.
Lines extending from the foreground to the background gather (converge) at one point. The point of convergence is called the “vanishing point”. The vanishing point will always be on the horizontal line, or “eye level” of the scene, which represents the height of the eye or camera of the observer.
To make a one point perspective cube follow the 6 steps bellow (source Helloartsy.com)
1. Draw a horizon line. The horizon line will represent eye level in the scene.
2. Place a vanishing point on the horizon line. The vanishing point is going to be the point at which we draw the box back towards.
3. Draw the closest side of the box. This is a square shape. You will probably find it easier to draw the front side first.
4. Connect the appropriate corners to the vanishing point. This is the magical part about perspective drawing.
5. End the form. You need to pick a logical place to end the cube.
6. When drawing in perspective you will always end up with some extra lines or lines that are too long. Clean up all the unnecessary lines.
2. Two-point perspective Two-point perspective is used for compositions that look at objects at an angle. As it is close to what the human eye normally sees, it is the most used perspective when drawing manga backgrounds and illustrations.
In one-point perspective, lines converged on one point from the background to the foreground. In two-point perspective, in addition to depth, lines representing width also converge. As seen in the example below, two lines going in different directions converge on their respective vanishing point.
Let’s learn how to draw a two point perspective bedroom (source: Helloarte.com): 1. Establish a horizontal line and two vanishing points. For now draw a horizon line near the centre of your paper. Place the vanishing point as far as you can, and both of the points will need to be drawn on the horizon line.
2. Draw the farthest corner of the bedroom interior. This can be anywhere in between two vanishing points.
3. To draw an interior wall of the bedroom, connect the top and bottom of the vertical line to the vanishing point. When drawing interiors, walls go to opposite corner. The wall on the left gets connected to the vanishing point on the right.
4. Draw the other wall.
5. Let’s draw a bed. A bed is nothing more than a box. We can use our vanishing points to draw it. We can start by laying out the frontal plane of the bed.
6. Draw the other side of the bed:
7. Use your pencil and ruler to draw the top of the bed. Use the vanishing points when drawing!
8. Erase the parts of the walls that would be blocked by the bed:
9. Add a doorway for your bedroom:
10. You can even use the vanishing points to make the door open! Very cool, isn’t it?
11. Make a window (use the vanishing points as always):
12. Erase all the lines that you don’t need:
3. Three-point perspective: Three-point perspective is used for drawing compositions that are looking up at a large object or looking down from a high place.
In two-point perspective, lines representing depth and width converge on two separate vanishing points.
In three-point perspective, lines representing height stretch toward a third vanishing point. For compositions that are looking up, the height vanishing point is above the object. When looking down, the height vanishing point is below the object.
Learning how to hand-draw a project is not a quick and easy task. People complete 4 years of University to gain that knowledge, so don’t be strict with yourself if using the information above doesn’t seem easy. Designers who don’t know how to hand-draw projects, and to be honest, those that do know how to, mainly use some of the brilliant software that is available. It’s not easy to choose between so much software, so I thought I would introduce you to some, so you can then decide about which software is the best for your business.
If you are looking for 3D modelling software, these are probably the best ones:
AutoCAD – operating system: Windows – price ****
3D Max Studio – OS: Windows – price ****
Blender 3D – OS: OS X, Windows, Linux – price free
Cinema 4D – OS: OS X, Windows – price ****
Rhinoceros – OS: OSX, Windows – price **
Sketchup – OS: OS X, Windows- price free for personal use, ** for pro use
If you are looking for building information modellers:
Revit – OS: Windows, price: ****
Archicad – OS: OS X, Windows, price: ****
If you would like to use a software that has already built models, units etc:
ArtiCad, great for Kitchen, bedroom, bathroom design, price: ***
2020 spaces – great for Kitchen and bathroom design, price: ***
Floor planner – you can design the entire home – free of charge
5D planner – you can design the entire home – free of charge
Room Styler – you can design the entire home – free of charge
In the following modules, I will ask you to design a few interiors using computer software, so I would like you to familiarise yourself with Room Styler, as some of your homework assignments will need to be done on that software.
The designer software that you will use from today is: https://roomstyler.com/3dplanner
Please watch the following short videos about how to use Room Styler software:
This software is free to use and it’s perfect beginner designer software.
RENDERING Rendering plays an important role in any presentation of an interior project. When you make a Perspective drawing by hand, use shadows and textures to add deepness to the image and express more the designer’s intent.
The shadow’s position needs to be chosen carefully. Check the following drawing and imagine how it would look without shadows and texture:
The rendering makes a huge difference, doesn’t it?
Key to the computer rendering is the light. Computers can simulate light within interior space through a variety of algorithms, including surface renderings and ray trace renderings. The 3d renderings are typically generated through whatever specific program the model or the design was created in, but you can find alternative rendering systems as well, like: VRay, Corona, Maxwell, Arnold, Thea, Octane, Unity etc.
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